|Aut 1||Aut 2||Spr 1||Spr 2||Sum 1|
|Animals including humans||Seasonal Changes|
|Year 2||Plants - bulbs and seeds||Animals including humans||Everyday materials||Living things and their habitats||Living things and their habitats|
|Year 3||Plants - seeds||Rocks||Light||Animals including humans||Forces and magnets|
|Year 4||States of matter||Sound||Living things and their habitats||Electricity||Animals including humans|
|Year 5||Forces||Properties and changes in materials||Properties and changes in materials||Living things and their habitats||Space||Animals including humans|
|Year 6||Electricity||Living things and their habitats||Evolution||Light||Animals including humans|
Purpose of study
A high-quality science education provides the foundations for understanding the world through the specific disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics. Science has changed our lives and is vital to the world’s future prosperity, and all pupils should be taught essential aspects of the knowledge, methods, processes and uses of science. Through building up a body of key foundational knowledge and concepts, pupils should be encouraged to recognise the power of rational explanation and develop a sense of excitement and curiosity about natural phenomena. They should be encouraged to understand how key foundational knowledge and concepts can be used to explain what is occurring, predict how things will behave, and analyse causes. This foundational understanding should be consolidated through their appreciation of the specific applications of science in society and the economy.
The National Curriculum for science aims to ensure that all pupils:
Scientific knowledge and conceptual understanding
The programmes of study describe a sequence of knowledge and concepts. While it is important that pupils make progress, it is also vitally important that they develop secure understanding of each key block of knowledge and concepts in order to progress to the next stage. Insecure, superficial understanding will not allow genuine progression: pupils may struggle at key points of transition (such as between primary and secondary school), build up serious misconceptions, and/or have significant difficulties in understanding higher-order content.
Pupils should be able to describe associated processes and key characteristics in common language, but they should also be familiar with, and use, technical terminology accurately and precisely. They should build up an extended specialist vocabulary. They should also apply their mathematical knowledge to their understanding of science, including collecting, presenting and analysing data. The social and economic implications of science are important but, generally, they are taught most appropriately within the wider school curriculum: teachers will wish to use different contexts to maximise their pupils’ engagement and motivation in science.
The nature, processes and methods of science
‘Working scientifically’ specifies the understanding of the nature, processes and methods of science for each year group. It should not be taught as a separate strand. The notes and guidance give examples of how ‘working scientifically’ might be embedded within the content of biology, chemistry and physics, focusing on the key features of science enquiry, so that pupils learn to use a variety of approaches to answer relevant scientific questions. Science enquiry should include using the statistical cycle to seek answers to questions through collecting, analysing and presenting data. ‘Working scientifically’ will be developed further at Key Stages 3 and 4, once pupils have built up sufficient understanding of science to engage meaningfully in more sophisticated discussion of experimental design and control.
The National Curriculum for science reflects the importance of spoken language in pupils’ development across the whole curriculum – cognitively, socially and linguistically. The quality and variety of language that pupils hear and speak are key factors in developing their scientific vocabulary and articulating scientific concepts clearly and precisely. They must be assisted in making their thinking clear, both to themselves and others, and teachers should ensure that pupils build secure foundations by using discussion to probe and remedy their misconceptions.
The programmes of study for science are set out year-by-year for Key Stages 1 and 2. Schools are, however, only required to teach the relevant programme of study by the end of the key stage. Within each key stage, schools therefore have the flexibility to introduce content earlier or later than set out in the programme of study. In addition, schools can introduce key stage content during an earlier key stage if appropriate.